Beach Geology

I have such a backlog of posts to write, but I’ll start with today’s photos. We went for a little exploring on the East Side of Kaua’i, starting at the north end of the bike path by Kumukumu (aka Donkey) beach.

There is a series of little coves to explore, however the paths in between (and the inland trail back) are getting overgrown and hard to find. These coves are more isolated, though on a beautiful Saturday like today, we saw people at every remote beach. Here’s an example:


But that is not the subject of this post. We had some big swells recently, and the beach combing was quite good. But let’s just say the rest of my family has more fun looking for seashells than I do, so I started exploring the rocks instead. When I started paying more attention to the rocks and the shoreline, I noticed many different shapes and textures:



I suppose this coast was created by several lava flows thousands of years apart. The first flow of dense lava created the black boulders that were eroded by the waves. Then a secondary eruption of lighter lava covered the boulders, and now they’re just being exposed again. This little formation in particular was striking, I’ve never seen such an orange-colored rock, and the eroded shapes were unique:



When dense lava cools slowly and creates basalt, it can make hexagonal columns that look like large cobblestones from the top (like the Giant’s Causeway in Northern Ireland):


But what kind of cooling and erosion created this?


Another part of the beach had lithified sand (essentially young sandstone) that was exposed in raised walls. I think this is formed when fresh water seeps through the beach, cementing the grains of sand together. Later, when the sea level changes (or the beach recedes), the hard cemeted sand remains. But in this case, the ancient sandy beach formed over basalt rocks, then was lithified, and is now a beach again:


Here, there was a dark flow over the lithified sand, but I couldn’t tell if it was a later lava flow or a layer of lithified black sand:


And a few steps further, the lithified sand contained chunks of ancient coral and seashells. The few seashells that you could see were definitely larger than today’s shell, so I wonder if they were thousands or millions of years old.


And here, the red and orange flows contained only a few boulders and were weathered fairly smooth by the wind and waves.


What is incredible is how the 3 processes of volcanism, erosion, and lithification are all overlapping and mixed together to create so many amazing combinations in just a mile or two of shoreline.

Repeal the Public Land Development Corporation

Long ago, I thought I could avoid politics on this blog. But in the end, everything is politics. If you hike and you want to protect the environment, if you live somewhere with limited resources and you want to save them, instead of being common sense, it’s politics.

Some background: After governor Lingle’s ferry fiasco, our new Democratic governor Neil Abercrombie seemed fairly progressive and environmentally minded. He fooled a lot of us. Last year, he encouraged and signed into law the Public Land Development Corporation (PLDC). Like all states, Hawaii is losing tax revenue because of the economic downturn and having trouble funding all its departments. The Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR) is one of those deparments that provides services to the population (state parks, among others) without collect much revenue (a few usage fees, but no taxes). So it’s budget was cut (as were services and quality of the facilities), and its new mission is to make money somehow.

That somehow is through development, as in building things on the land that you can charge money to use. But instead of granting commercial concessions to build and operate these developments, the politicians chose a semi-independent corporation. You can read more about its creation and rationalization in these articles from last year. Joan Conrow also links back to her earlier articles about the PLDC, she is one of the few who were paying attention and trying to raise awareness. In the end, the PLDC sailed through the legislature and was signed into law by the governor without too much public awareness, or even well-defined rules. Google “Hawaii Act 55” for more.

Fast forward one year to tonight, when the rules governing the PLDC have been written outside of the legislative process, and, fortunately for the citizens, are being debated in public hearings. Now the true nature of the PLDC is revealed, and people who want to protect Hawaii’s environment and natural resources are up in arms. Here is a video from the meeting on the Big Island. There is a petition you can sign that explains the worst issues. Even the former DLNR chairperson under Lingle’s horrible administration, Laura Thielen, is against the PLDC. In meetings on other islands, many people had come to denounce not just the rules, but the PLDC itself and how it was created.


The photo above shows the PLDC representatives running the meeting in the Lihue elementary school cafeteria. I think the man on the left is Lloyd Haraguchi, the executive director of the PLDC. As the meeting dragged on and one speaker after another attacked the rules, the PLDC legislation, and the people who passed it, I started to formulate my own protest. But there were so many speakers that I had to leave before I could give my testimony. So I wrote it down when I got home:

Good Evening Mr Chairman,

My name is Mr. Localshill, I’ve been hired by MegaDevCorp to comment on the rules you’re proposing tonight. MegaDevCorp is a world-wide investment and development partnership that looks for opportunities to take money out of local economies. We’re a lot like Bain Capital, you might’ve heard of them. We are based on the mainland, though our tax shelter–I mean corporate headquarters–are in the Bahamas.

Whew, it’s getting late tonight–good thing you and I are getting paid to be here.

Anyways, I’ve identified 3 development opportunities on Kaua’i, and I just want to make sure the rules favor us so we don’t loose money.

1. Your harbors. We can take over your harbors and run them for a profit. We need the state to pass bonds to rebuild all the docks and buildings, and then we’ll manage them for you and charge 4 times what you guys get. But there are a lot of boat ramps that cut into our potential revenue, so you’ll need to stop maintaining those. Don’t worry, we’ll run a marketing campaign about how the public-private partnership is better for the people and gives them the services that DLNR was too underfunded to provide. But if that doesn’t work, the rules must include a guaranteed minimum payment from the state, in case we can’t collect enough usage fees.

2. Haena Luxury Condos and Time-Shares. Think of how much we can sell pieces of Bali-Hai for. We need to take over the Hawaiian lands and state park there, but don’t worry, we’ll keep 8 parking spaces in the 3-level parking garage for public access, just like at Ka’anapali. Hopefully, your rules will allow us to disregard shoreline setbacks, so we can get a lot of units real close to the beach for the view–pack’em in for better profitability. For building those towers, we also need rules that let us bring in Mexican labor because local labor is too expensive and may cause trouble if we unearth any bones in the sand.

3. A hotel in Kokee–we got the idea from your plan a while ago. Think of the lodge at Koele on Lanai: a grand lodge in the meadow (to replace that museum) and take back all the cabins and turn them into luxury bungalows. So we need rules that allow us to develop the state park and, ahem, evict the group who runs the museum. Probably need to tear down the CCC camp and clear some forest. We also need bigger and better roads up there, and close the campgrounds to keep the riff-raff out. Then we need space for a golf course through the meadow, and probably a zipline somewhere. We’ll sell it as an eco-lodge and offer helicopter tours. We’ll need you to put up a gate and give us 50% of the entrance fees, because we’ll be running the park for you.

Just think of all the great development we’ll provide for your tourists–you’ll see arrivals skyrocket because you’ll have more destinations and activities for them. However, we’re still expecting the state to spend millions on promoting the pristine beauty of Kaua’i so that our hotels are filled. And just think of all the minimum wage jobs for locals after we staff our management from the mainland. Because of these great benefits to the state, we’ll need some tax breaks and development incentives.

I know that’s a lot to ask for, so let’s talk it over sometime in private. I’d like to invite you and your family to the St. Regis for a week, and we’ll have time to chat on the golf course.

As I try to highlight in these extreme examples, there are several serious problems with the PLDC:

  • The Hawaii government created an entity that has control of state (public) resources but which can exempt itself from the laws that apply to county and state government. The statutes of the PLDC clearly indicate that its projects are exempt from county zoning regulation. Essentially, this entity transfers the privileges of state sovereignty to private corporations.
  • The PLDC is privatizing the state resources. As is always the case in these situations, potential profits are privatized, while the costs and risks are borne by the taxpayer. For example: if a developer creates a hotel on state land, the state still has to pay for sewer and road infrastructure to handle the additional burden. Incredibly, neighboring properties of a development project can be required to pay for infrastructure upgrades to match the development, for example installing sidewalks or underground utilities. Alternatively, if a development fails to meet its overly optimistic returns, the state is left paying for bonds or subsidies it promised to the private developer.
  • A lot of native Hawaiians are opposed because most of the lands proposed for development are the so-called “ceded lands” that belonged to the overthrown Hawaiian Kingdom and are supposed to be held in trust. The state has always sought ways to get money for those lands, and being barred from selling them (they tried, the state supreme court stopped them) the PLDC was created to develop them with as little oversight as possible. The ceded lands are an interesting case because there are pieces of prime real-estate in towns, cities, and coastal areas that could be turned into housing or condos for tourists at prime rates. But then the land is gone and the development potential used up forever, in return for a small percentage of the revenue. The PLDC locks the native Hawaiians out of developing their own land, and gives the profits of development to outside corporations.
  • The money has to come from somewhere. Normally, the state collects taxes and fees to provide services such as running a harbor. If a private company provides the same services, they need the same personnel and thus have the same cost, but they have to collect extra money to pay the state for the privilege, as well as for their profit. So somebody is going to pay more, and it’s always the taxpayer, the service user, or the tourist. The puropose of the corporation is to control the resource in order to extract extra money out of it for the benefit of its executives and shareholders. The purpose of the state is to hold and develop resources for the benefit of (and lowest cost to) the taxpayer.
  • The PLDC is just another layer of bureaucracy, and a highly paid one at that. The cost of that bureaucracy is hidden because it pays itself by subtracting money from the money it collects for the state–thus increasing the cost of development. Also, the PLDC board members wield great power but don’t seem accountable to anyone. They are seeming free from state ethics and transparency rules and they have great leeway to change their own rules.
  • And perhaps worst of all: by design, the public is shut out of the development process. The state has strict rules for soliciting input and organizing meetings in the community of those who are affected by whatever it builds or develops. The PLDC is designed so that none of those rules apply to it. It can operate out of Honolulu, make decisions, and avoid scrutiny and legal challenges. It doesn’t have to hold hearing and take public input on the neighboring islands that are affected. It has the power, money, and land from the state, but it lacks the accountability to and oversight from the public.

The normal way to develop state land or redevelop existing facilities such as the harbors is for the DLNR to grant a concession. The private developer invests into the project, recieves profits, and pays fees back to the state. The difference between a concession and the proposed PLDC is that state employees seek bids, approve contracts, and manage the concession. They have to abide by state laws including holding hearings and considering public input. All records are public and can be obtained upon demand. They are paid their normal salaries, not from some monies collected from the developer. The PLDC is just a way to avoid legitimate oversight and skim money from taxpayers, which is why it should be repealed.

The scary part is that my examples may not be so extreme. All it takes is a rotten politician, or a really greedy corporation, or a governor desperate to balance the budget before his re-election.

Larry Ellison Buys Lana’i

Well, it didn’t take long for the update. The buyer was announced today as Larry Ellison, which seems very obvious in hindsight. European magnates like Richard Branson are too far and have their islands in the Carribean already (his is named Necker Island, which is also the name of a Hawaiian island). East Coast tycoons like Donald Trump are all about New York. And Larry Ellison is the poster child for brash and flamboyant West coast Internet billionaires–Bill Gates isn’t so flashy (though like I mentioned, he was married on Lana’i), Bezos is probably too thrifty, and the rest (Page, Brin, and Zuckerberg) are still “just” paper billionaires.

Of course, the speculation is still “what will Larry do with the island.” The luxury hotels on the island are losing money, residents don’t like the idea of turning the island into a wind farm (though in an odd twist, the seller seems to be keeping the wind farm development rights), and there is no surface water to resume agriculture again.

Some of the comments on the SFgate article are fairly insightful:

  • Solamie for the laughs: “Every day he looks more and more like a James Bond villain.”
  • Laughing_Gravy with more laughs (and an indirect reference to Kaua’i): “Does he plan to clone dinosaurs there?”
  • bustout: “About time someone kicked Castle and Cook out of Hawaii. They were historically one of the most egregious unconscionable exploiters of both the land and the people. Ellison will be a huge improvement.”
  • hsailor: “Ellison may be a jerk, greedy, and an egomaniac, but he’s not a developer. Considering the possible alternatives, it could be worse.”
  • Babel_on: “Better Larry Ellison than some greedy developer who needs to turn a profit. Ellison is so wealthy he can just let sit there as is and he will hardly notice the dip in his bank account. If he does develop it, it’s likely that he will do a beautiful job. He’s not a Donald Trump, vulgarian type. Quite the opposite.”
  • Mike_archangel: “Well now, we certainly know where the next American Cup will be held.”

The America’s Cup comment could be prophetic. It is currently planned in San Francisco, and despite both parties benefitting from holding it there, there have been a lot of issues between Larry’s yacht racing organization and the city. And just yesterday, the pier they were rebuilding as part of the America’s Cup event went up in flames. Assuming Larry can win in San Francisco and keep the cup, Hawaii seems like an obvious candidate to host the following race. In fact, in between Lana’i and West Maui, there is a natural, protected anchorage called Lahaina Roads. Along with Maui’s upscale Ka’anapali strip, the old whaling port of Lahaina, and Larry’s new properties on Lana’i, it does seem like an ideal venue.

This story is also interesting because it shows a new era of big landowers and big money in Hawaii. The “Big 5” companies that used to “control” Hawaii are diversifying and divesting, and apparently they are ready to sell to the new monied dynasties. A lot of those companies built their fortune on agriculture in Hawaii, but with the decline of all local crops (except coffee), it’s hard to tell how they will hang on or what new owners would do with the land. I suppose it’s the backstory of the movie The Descendents being played out in real life. Here on Kaua’i, we have Grove Farm owned by Steve Case, retired CEO of AOL. Despite his ties to Hawaii, he has been a gung-ho developer, though perhaps not as bad as Alexander and Baldwin’s conspicuous Kukui’ula in Poipu.

And of course, Kaua’i has the neighboring Ni’ihau island, the only large 100% private island in Hawaii. Ni’ihau is almost exactly half the size of Lana’i (69.5 square miles to 140.5, respectively), and it has even less water, no development, a barely profitable ranch, and no public access. But it is still owned by the local land barons, the Robinson family, along with large parts of Kaua’i’s interior and West side. The owners are getting old themselves, and who knows how that succession will happen, or should they sell, what would change. I think those potential scenarios are in the minds of a lot of people on Kaua’i as they watch Ellison’s next moves on Lana’i.

Another Island Being Sold

My post about Johnston Island, a former military base 600 mile SW of Hawaii, has proven popular with veterans and former workers there. I mentioned the island because it the closest non-Hawaiian island to Hawaii, and also because it was seemingly for sale at the time.

Today comes the rare news that one of the actual Hawaiian islands is being sold (articles in the Maui News and SF Chronicle). “The asking price is reportedly between $500 million and $600 million, the Maui News reported.” Lana’i is one of the 4 islands that make up Maui county, but it is 98% privately owned by Castle & Cook, one of the Big 5 companies in Hawaii that acquired the Dole Food Company that grew pineapples there.

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More recently, the pineapple plantation was shut down, and Castle & Cook developed two ultra-luxury resort and golf club there. Apparently they were losing money on the venture and looked to sell not just the resorts but the whole island. Technically, I could say the island was for sale, but it doesn’t seem like there was a public offer, more like they negociated privately to find a buyer. Everyone is worried about what the new owner will do to monetize the property, because if they don’t have an idea to make money, then residents will be out of work and move away.

I think the other 2% of the island is owned by the state, probably for roads, docks, and parks and other infrastructure. That would mean that everyone who lives there pays rent to (and gets utilities from) the landowner. Even though the island is mostly private, it is open to the public. There is a daily ferry from Lahaina, and then you can rent cars on Lana’i to get around to the few beaches and one town. I’ve never been there, but I heard there is a beach campground not far from the dock, so I thought it would be neat to camp there a few nights sometime.

The one story I remember about Lana’i is that because of it’s private status, Bill Gates chose it for his wedding. It was one time they did actually close public access, to keep away the media and curious on-lookers. However, some photographer managed to reach the 2% that is owned by others, yet he was still asked to leave by security guards. That seems like an abuse of someone’s rights, but I’m not sure what the outcome was.

Google Streetview on Kaua’i

It took a while for Google to cover Kaua’i with high-resolution, cloud-free aerial images, and so we were still waiting for their Street View, the nifty tool that lets you see a photo of any address. I saw their car driving around last fall, but the camera was covered up. In the meantime, it seems they were busy and recently the images went live:

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They seem to have covered the whole island, I only saw a few very minor side streets that they missed. They didn’t do any dirt roads (Polihale, Maha’ulepu, etc.) but they did all paved roads, inlcuding the Makaha Ridge road. Also, Princeville is not included probably because it’s all private, though I wonder whether it was Google or Princeville Corp. that declined the coverage. Here’s the coverage map:


I did see a few interesting things:

  • Streetview includes the walkways at some resorts, such as Islander on the Beach in Wailua (I suppose rental owners will like this):

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  • It has some golf courses such as Kiahuna and here the new one at Kukui’ula above Lawai Bay:

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  • Those paths are ostensibly private, but they did get the Kapa’a bike path, at least to Kealia beach:

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I think they used the newly announced Trekker, a backpack-mounted camera rig, to walk those paths and record their images. That would explain the odd stare that people have on the bike path. I wonder if I should volunteer to hike the trails with their backpack. Do we really want the outdoors to become a virtual experience?